What is Herpes?

Herpes is a very common and highly infectious virus which has two types:

  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV I) - The most likely cause of cold sores, typically around the mouth. This virus can also be caught genitally through oral sex.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV II) - The virus that typically causes sores, typically around the genitals. It may also be caught around the mouth through oral sex.

Your Better2Know test will tell you which (if any) type of the virus you have.


HSV I, or cold sores, should not really be considered an STI, as infection can occur in so many non-sexual ways. It is responsible for about half of "Genital Herpes" cases. HSV II, or Genital Herpes, is typically caught on the genitals and is transmitted through sexual contact. Up to 60% of people who have HSV II are unlikely to know they are infected, as their symptoms will be minimal or non-existent.

People with Herpes are highly likely to infect their partners through sex, when the virus is present on the genitals. It can cause pimples, little cuts, itchy or sore skin. Occasionally, there may be virus present with no visible sign (asymptomatic viral shedding).

Did you know? …

Only around 1 in 3 people with Herpes will experience symptoms. 2 in 3 will have mild or no symptoms.

How can I get Herpes?

Herpes is spread through unprotected oral, vaginal or anal contact with an infected person. This does not have to be intercourse. The risk of catching or transmitting the virus is highest when your partner has blisters or sores. It is still possible to contract HSV II when your partner does not have any visible sores or blisters, but this is much less likely.

Recurrent symptoms are almost always on visible skin - sores inside the vagina or anus are usually only present as part of a primary infection and are unlikely to accompany a recurrence.

HSV I is often spread by kissing, which is why it is very common.

What are the symptoms?

HSV may cause blisters on the genital areas of both men and women. These blisters typically develop within two days to three weeks after first getting infected. The blisters start off as small bumps, grow into full blisters, and burst releasing pus. Blisters can be small or large, and can be just one blister, or many located close together.

Other symptoms can include painful itching, burning, headache, swollen glands in the groin, and generalised muscle aches. The first episode or outbreak is usually the most severe with later outbreaks becoming milder. Most people catch the virus without developing these symptoms.


How do I test for it?

Better2Know tests for Herpes with a small blood sample. Results are available one day after your sample arrives in the laboratory. The test will determine whether you have HSV I or HSV II.

How is it treated?

Like several other infections, once it is caught, HSV I and HSV II stay in the body forever. Most carriers of HSV need no treatment because symptoms are slight or non-existent. A minority of those infected experience recurrent outbreaks.

Fortunately, there are ways to decrease the frequency and severity of the outbreaks. There are anti-viral medications available (both creams and pills) which can help control the infection.

In addition, there are lifestyle changes which can also help control the time between outbreaks and their severity. You can choose to speak to a Better2Know doctor about your results who will be able to recommend appropriate medication. You can also speak to your own doctor.

What are the adverse consequences?

If you or your partner is pregnant, it is wise to take some precautions to protect the baby. Most women with Herpes who give birth have carried the virus for some time and this is very unlikely to affect the baby.

However, primary (first time) lesions that are exposed near the vaginal opening during delivery could cause the virus to be passed on to the baby, potentially causing serious neo-natal infection. In these cases, a caesarean section is usually carried out. Recurrences at term are very unlikely to cause this problem so a natural birth is recommended for most women. 

There is an increased chance of recurrent symptoms during pregnancy. These will not harm your baby but do mean that some women who have previously been asymptomatic may notice symptoms for the first time whilst pregnant. If you are in any way worried, please consult your mid-wife.